The National Academy of Sciences called of the XL comprises two Classes of Members: National Members and Foreign Members.

The class of National Members consists of 40 Ordinary Members and a variable number of Supernumerary ones, determined by the number of Ordinary Members who are 70 years old and have at least 5 years of seniority in the appointment.

The division into Ordinary and Supernumerary members is a purely historical one and is linked to the order in which members succeeded the 40  Academy founders.

The Class of Foreign Members comprises 25 scientists.

National Members

Foreign Members 

National Members (1782 – to date) 

Foreign Members (1782 – to date)